FORMING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE COMMON BEANS DEPENDING ON VARIETIES, INOCULATION, AND FERTILIZER
Keywords:common beans; seeds; strains of Rhizobium phaseoli; productivity; quality; efficiency
Introduction. The growth and development of bean plants occur in direct proportion to environmental conditions, the main components of which are air and soil temperature, light, humidity, and mineral nutrition. The productivity of plants is determined by the presence of these factors, and the more they correspond to the biological characteristics of the crop, the more fully the potential of bean varieties is realized. Until recently, in our conditions, due to the lack of scientific research, the technology of growing common beans under the given soil and climatic conditions, their influence on the productivity and quality indicators of bean grain, the unexplained economic and energy efficiency of the technology for growing common beans in this region is not fully studied. In this regard, increasing the grain productivity of bean varieties of domestic breeding by establishing the characteristics of growth and development and optimizing the elements of growing technology (fertilizers, inoculation) depending on varietal characteristics and weather conditions of the growing season is an urgent task. Purpose. The study aimed to determine the duration of the growing season and the yield of beans for varieties Mavka, Eureka, Lastivka, depending on the level of fertilizing and seed inoculation. Methods. In the study of common bean seeds, before sowing, they were treated with different strains of microorganisms. Depending on this, the interphase periods of plant growth and development changed somewhat. The duration of the period of sowingfull ripeness in bean plants of the Lastivka variety inoculated with different strains of Rhizobium phaseoli differed by 1–3 days on average over the study period of 2020–2022. Results. A significant influence on the growth and development of bean plants under our conditions was exerted by factors determined for the study, varietal characteristics of beans, as well as hydrothermal conditions of the growing years of research. The longest period of vegetation of bean varieties was noted in 2021, which is closest in terms of indicators to typical weather and climatic conditions and favorable for the growth and development of bean plants. Sufficient rainfall in May, June, and July (respectively 92 mm, 109,2 mm, and 85 mm) caused an extension of the flowering phase, a more intensive growth of the vegetative mass, and an increase in the height of plant growth. In the dry year of 2022 over the years of research, the vegetation of the studied varieties was the shortest and, depending on the factors put into study, was 73–81 days for the Lastivka variety, 83–95 days, and 85–96 days for the Mavka and Eureka varieties, respectively. Interphase periods in the ontogeny of bean plants lasted 4–12 days less. The studied bean varieties belong to the mid-ripening group, however, the difference in the onset of growth phases, depending on the factors studied, was up to 13 days. Variety Lastivka ripened earlier than others, and its vegetation period was 8–13 days shorter. Depending on the fertilizer and seed inoculation with Rhizobofit, the growing season of mid-ripening bean varieties was different for Lastivka, Mavka, and Eureka varieties from 79 to 102 days. Originality. When grown with the use of seed inoculation and fertilization at the rate of N60P40K20, including the vegetation of beans, it was extended by 3-5 days. When applying fertilizers at the rate of N90P60K30 and N120P80K40, the growing season was almost the same both with and without inoculation with Rhizobofit. With the application of N120P80K40 fertilizers and without seed inoculation with Rhizobofit, the growing season of bean varieties was extended by 13–15 days. The duration of individual periods of ontogenesis, as well as the growing season as a whole, was directly dependent on the hydrothermal conditions of the year, variety, and norms of mineral fertilizers. Conclusion. Our studies have shown that both varietal characteristics and mineral fertilizers and seed inoculation had a significant impact on the growth and development of mid-ripening varieties of common beans under our conditions. The increase in the rate of application of mineral fertilizers caused the lengthening of the growing season of the studied varieties to 8–13 days compared to the control, as a result of which the onset of the phenological phases was also delayed in time. With the pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Rhizobofit, the duration of vegetation and the onset of the phenophase also lengthened from 2 to 5 days compared with the variants without inoculation. Variety Lastivka ripened earlier than others by 8–10 days.
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