CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHICKPEA VARIETIES DEPENDING ON THE APPLICATION OF MACRO AND MICRO FERTILIZERS
Keywords:chickpeas, variety, pre-sowing fertilization, foliar feeding, micro fertilizers, growth and development, crop capacity, qualitative indicators
The world area of chickpeas is about 12,5 million hectares, 8 million hectares of which are in India. In Ukraine, chickpea crops are located in the steppe and partially in the forest-steppe zone. Chickpeas are undemanding to the soil. It grows well on sandy light loams, as well as on sandy soils, but black soils and gray forest soils are best for it. Therefore, chickpea deserves to be studied in the conditions of the western Forest Steppe. The aim of the work is the scientific justification and development of agrotechnical methods and technological measures of varietal technology of growing chickpeas under the conditions of application of macro and micro fertilizers in the conditions of the western Forest Steppe. Research methods. In the experiments, the following observations, studies, and analyzes were conducted: phenological observations were carried out during certain periods and phenological phases of growth and development of chickpea plants; counting the density of plants of different varieties of chickpeas was processed twice during the growing season on special micro-sites; the height of the plants and the height of attachment of the lower bean were analyzed according to the phases of chickpea growth and development using a measuring ruler. The main results of the study. The results of our research and observations showed that the duration of both individual interphase periods and the entire growing season of common chickpea varieties was determined by the agrometeorological factors of the region, and primarily by the conditions of moisture and the temperature regime of the air and soil. The scientific novelty of the research results. As research has shown, chickpea plants at the initial stages of organogenesis grow rather slowly, and in the interphase period of branching-budification, growth and development are significantly enhanced, as a result of which a significant vegetative mass is formed and internodes are elongated. Conclusions. The use of pre-sowing application of macro fertilizers (N30P20K30) increased the density of sowing by only 6,9%, while the use of Boron (B) and Molybdenum (Mo) – by 8,1–8,5% compared to the control without treatment. When using mineral fertilizers N30 and N30P20K30 before sowing and foliar fertilization with Boron (B) and Molybdenum (Mo) in the phase of intensive growth (phase of budding), the height of plants increased by 6,8–7,2–8,5 cm, or reached, according to the varieties 66,4–66,4–67,8 cm for the seed ripening period.
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