DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF TICK-BORNE DISEASES OF PETS
Keywords:Tick-borne diseases, Ixodid ticks, borreliosis, ehrlichiosis, Tick-borne encephalitis
AbstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in the number of tick-borne diseases around the world, especially borreliosis, rickettsiosis (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis), tick-borne encephalitis and others. Climate and environmental changes, migration (movement) of domestic animals lead to changes in the epizootiological situation regarding communicable diseases. The analysis of epizootological, clinical, laboratory data is carried out. The data of scientific researches concerning tick-borne diseases, namely borreliosis, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, louping-ill infection are generalized. In recent years, infectious and invasive animal diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and protozoa transmitted by ticks have become a new challenge in health and veterinary practice. Many such diseases are zoonoses and lead to disability and mortality in humans and animals. Ixodid ticks often attack animals and humans and are widespread throughout Europe, as well as being involved in the transmission of a large number of tick-borne diseases. Currently, one of the biggest threats is the pathogens of the complex Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., which belong to the spirochetes and affect various species of mammals and birds and are transmitted by ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus and Ixodes persulcatus). The disease is of great epidemiological importance for human health. Diagnosis and treatment are insufficiently developed. Ehrlichia spp. are gramnegative, obligate intracellular bacteria from the family Anaplasmataceae. In Europe, Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent of monocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs. The main host of E. canis is a dog (other dogs can serve as reservoir hosts); vector - Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Tick-borne encephalitis, as well as louping-ill infection, are diseases transmitted by Ixodid ticks and pose a danger to dogs, cats and other animals, as well as people in Europe. At present, all these diseases acquire important epizootological significance, as diagnosis and treatment are complicated. The main measure of disease prevention among dogs is the effective protection of animals from tick attack. Tick-borne diseases are a type of infectious and invasive diseases of animals and humans, the causative agents of which spread from one susceptible subject to another with the participation of blood-sucking arthropods. The most common and clinically significant diseases are: borreliosis, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne encephalitis and other. Systematic studies of zoonotic diseases have not been conducted in Ukraine. Systematic monitoring of pathogens and effective control of communicable diseases of animals are the basis for improving the epidemiological situation among the population.
Petersen, L.R., Beard C.B., Visser S.N. (2019). Combatting the increasing threat of vectorborne disease in the United States with a national vector-borne disease prevention and control system. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 100(2), 242-245.
Caminade, C., McIntyre, K.M., Jones, A.E. (2019). Impact of recent and future climate change on vector-borne diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1436(1), 157-173.
Eder, M., Cortes, F., Teixeira de Siqueira Filha, N., Araujo de Franca, G.V., Degroote, S., Braga, C., Ridde, V., Turchi Martelli, C.M. (2018). Scoping review on vector-borne diseases in urban areas: transmission dynamics, vectorial capacity and co-infection. Infect Dis Poverty, 7(1), 90.
Boulanger, Nm, Boyer, Pm, Talagrand-Reboul, E., Hansmann, Y. (2019). Ticks and tick-borne diseases. Med Mal Infect, 49(2), 87-97.
Levytska, V. A., & Mushynskyi, A. B. (2020). Ixodid ticks in the Western Ukraine. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary sciences, 22(97), 187–193. doi: 10.32718/nvlvet9730 [in Ukranian]
Kybicova, K., Bastova, K., Maly, M. (2017). Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks Ixodes ricinus from the Czech Republic. Ticks and tickborne diseases, 8(4), 483-487.
Koenen, F., Pascucci, I., Jaenson, T.G.T., Madder, M., de Sousa, R., Estrada-Pena, A., Farkas, R., Salman, M. (2013). Tick-borne infections (including zoonoses) in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. In: Salman M, Tarres-Call J. (Ed.) Ticks and tick-borne diseases Geographical distribution and control stragegies in the Euro-Asia Region (pp. 33-75).Boston: Cabi.
Sykes, R.A., Makiello, P. (2017). An estimate of Lyme borreliosis incidence in Western Europe. J Public Health (Oxf), 39(1), 74-81.
Littman, M.P., Gerber, B., Goldstein, R.E., Labato, M.A., Lappin, M.R., Moore, G.E. (2018). ACVIM consensus update on Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats. J. Vet Intern Med, 32(3), 887-903.
Abdad, M.Y., Abou Abdallah, R., Fournier, P.E., Stenos, J, Vasoo, S. (2018) A concise review of the epidemiology and diagnostics of Rickettsioses: Rickettsia and Orientia spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 56(8).
Lozynsky, I.M., Biletskaya, G.V., Ben, I.I., Shulgan, A.M., Fedoruk, V.I., Drul, O.S. (2014). The current state of the study of tick-borne natural focal infections in Ukraine. Preventive medicine. № 3-
Pp. 60-61. [in Ukrainian]
Control of Vector-Borne Diseases in Dogs and Cats (2019). ESCCAP Guideline 05 Third Edition.
Copyright (c) 2020 Podilian Bulletin: Agriculture, Engineering, Economics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to Public Policy and Administration agree to publish their articles under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this licence are made clear.