YIELD OF CORN DEPENDING ON THE TERMS AND MULTIPLICITY OF FUNGICIDES APPLICATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF WESTERN FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE
Keywords:corn, fungicides, diseases, planting acreage, yield, mycotoxins
AbstractThe current state of corn production in the world and its importance as one of the main export crops for Ukraine has been studied. The influence of fungicides on the development of major diseases of corn by stages of development has been shown: 12 leaves, flowering phase, phase of wax ripeness of grain. Four times the application of fungicides allowed to reduce the percentage of plants affected by spotting by 15,2-15,3% relative to the control in the phase of wax ripeness of the grain. The percentage of plants affected by rust was 20,2 in the version with three treatments. Four times the use of fungicides allowed to stop the development of fusarium head blight at the level of 12,9%, against 26,3% in the control variant. Starting with double spraying with drugs, the percentage of affected plants was not more than 21,5%. Data on the effect of fungicide application on maize yield depending on the time and frequency of plant treatments are presented. The influence of fungicides on the development of major diseases of corn by stages of development has been shown. With increasing frequency of spraying received a higher yield. One-time application of fungicides allowed to obtain 0,5-1,04 t / ha of grain more than the control, double – 1,35-2,04 t / ha. The highest yield increase of +3.4 t/ha has provided the option with four applications of fungicides in the phases of 10 leaves + ejection of panicles + after flowering + grain filling. In the variant with three treatments (ejection of panicles + after flowering + grain filling) +3.13 t/ha and +2,69 t/ha to control has been received depending on the terms of application. Variants with later dates of fungicide application provided a higher increase in corn grain yield compared to earlier dates (10 leaves). It was investigated that the content of mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol - DON) in corn grain does not exceed the limits in any of the variants and decreases with multiplicity increase of fungicide treatments.
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