THERMAL INSULATION OF SOIL SURFACE IN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGY
Keywords:density, structure, soil, thermal properties, thermal insulation layer, surface treatment, resource-saving technology
AbstractIn the context of agricultural development, one of the most urgent problems is the creation of resource-saving technologies based on natural agriculture that will help increase yields, reduce energy costs, avoid water and air pollution, and prevent soil erosion. One of the factors that limits the yield of agricultural crops in technologies is soil moisture. At present, there is no scientifically proved analytical theory on the soil treatment system, with the creation of a thermal insulation layer on the soil surface and a change in the physical characteristics of the soil profile. Covering the soil with a heat-insulating layer of plant residues allows, depending on its physical and mechanical properties, to affect the entire complex of factors that determine the physical conditions in the soil. Mechanical treatment directly affects the pore structure of the soil and the distribution of plant residues. The porosity of the soil determines the amount of air and water that the soil can hold. The distribution of plant residues affects the temperature of the soil surface, the level of vapors and water content, as well as the level of nutrient content and rotting intensity. Soil treatment using No-till technology with the creation of a heat-insulating layer regulates soil temperature, allows to retain soil moisture, improves the soil structure and the percentage of organic matter.In the article the results of researches of heat-insulation layer are presented from vegetable tailings which at superficial treatment of soil have influence on a change it’s thermophysical descriptions. Researches of temperature condition of soil and it’s properties are conducted, and the study indicates that closeness and thermophysical properties of soil is associate. It is obvious that the thermal conductivity, is significantly dependent on moisture, and consequently on the density of the soil. In the region of low humidity, water is firmly connected, and the processes of heat exchange are determined by the heat transfer process of heat transfer in the soil. As the density of the material increases, the thermal conductivity increases. The analysis of phisics and mechanical properties of soil is executed, which matters for creation heat-insulation layer at superficial treatment of soil. To date, the actual yield of cereal crops is not sufficient to form optimal conditions, it is necessary to create a layer of plant residues of about 0.05 m on the soil surface. Obviously, in No-till technologies with management of plant residues with a thickness of 0.016-0.032m, it will be difficult to ensure planned crop yields. Therefore, to create a thermal insulation layer on the surface of the soil, it becomes necessary to apply a method of surface loosening of the soil with simultaneous mixing of plant residues. The basis of this technological method is the change in density in the upper layers of the soil.The method of calculation of superficial treatment of soil is grounded. Application of heat-insulation layer on-the-spot soil will allow to forecast thermophysical processes in concrete climatic terms, and also to ground technology of accumulation of moisture in a soil type in the field terms, taking into account thermal resources, on the basis of which a specialist will be able to optimize, manage forming of harvest of agricultural cultures
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